The Tokyo 2020 Sport-Specific Regulations (SSR) have been developed between the IOC and the respective International Federations to determine how any impacts of a confirmed positive COVID-19 case would be managed in competition formats and structures.

In June 2021, the IOC Executive Board set the following three main principles to provide consistency across sports where possible:

  1. No athlete or team should be designated as “disqualified” for COVID-19 reasons, instead “Did Not Start (DNS)” or an equivalent sport-specific designation will be used where the athletes or team cannot take part in competition
  2. The minimum result of the athlete/team will be protected, considering the phase of competition at which they could not compete
  3. Where possible the place of an athlete or team unable to compete will be filled by the next most eligible athlete or team, allowing events to go ahead where possible and medals to be competed for on the field of play

Based on this, the summary below per sport indicates how the principles will be reflected on a sport-by-sport basis if there is a confirmed COVID-19 case.

The Tokyo 2020 Playbooks and COVID-19 countermeasures provide the framework for a safe and secure Olympic Games. These SSRs are therefore contingency plans that will be activated in case a confirmed case appears so that all stakeholders are ready to implement this and not impact the athletes experience or delay the competition. The implementation is subject to the individual circumstances of each situation and in particular the timing at which the COVID-19 cases are confirmed relative to the start of the respective competition impacted, as well as the applicable International Federation’s rules and regulations.

The aim is for all the competitions to go ahead as per the planned competition schedule that you can find on olympics.com.

Aquatics

In Artistic Swimming, if a duet or team are not able to compete due to COVID-19 the athlete(s) will not be disqualified and will be marked as Did Not Start (DNS). In case a duet is withdrawn the next ranked duet from the Preliminary phase will replace the withdrawn duet. For the teams, the event only consists of Finals, in case a team can no longer compete due to COVID-19 the event will go ahead with one less team. The NOC may change the composition of a team in a case of COVID-19 either using the alternate athlete or using athletes from the duets where possible. In case it is not possible the event will go ahead with one team less.

In Diving, if an athlete or team is not able to compete due to COVID-19, the athlete(s) will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. Once the competition has started and the athlete has to be removed the athlete will be marked as withdrawn. In individual events the designated reserve athletes will take the vacant place in the next phase. In the team events, the events are completed in one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one team less.

In Marathon Swimming, an athlete who is not able to compete due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. The event is a single competition phase and in case it is confirmed that the athlete is not able to compete following the daily test result the athlete will be removed from the event and the event will go ahead with one athlete less.

In Swimming, an athlete or relay team who are not able to compete due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case an athlete/relay team must be removed from the semi-finals or finals, they will be replaced by the designated reserves in the respective events.

In Water Polo, teams unable to start the competition will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. If a team can no longer compete during the group stage the remainder of the matches are considered a bye for the opposing team. In case a team that is qualified for the knock-out round is unable to participate in that match, the team concerned will be replaced by the next highest ranked team of the corresponding group from preliminary round. The same would go for the final matches where the losing team of the previous round would take the place of the eliminated team.

Archery

In Archery, an athlete who is not able to compete due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.

In the individual events, in case an athlete cannot start the event they will be marked as DNS and the opponent receives a bye. In case an athlete is not able to compete due to COVID-19 after the elimination rounds, but before the start of the day of the finals, that athlete will be replaced with the athlete they eliminated in the previous phase of the competition.

For the mixed team event, the top 16 teams from the ranking round will qualify. The mixed team event takes place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if a team can start. Where possible the event will start with 16 mixed teams. In case an athlete can no longer compete, an NOC may use another athlete on site to complete the mixed team.

The men’s and women’s team events are also held over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if a team can start. In case it cannot go ahead the teams will be marked with DNS and the opponent receives a bye.

Athletics

In Athletics, athletes unable to compete due to COVID-19 reasons will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.

As track and field events are held over multiple days, in case of an athlete being unable to compete because of a positive COVID-19 case, in track events the best next-best placed athletes from the previous round will be brought forward to replace that athlete in the next phase. The exception is for the 10’000m which is a direct final and takes place as a single race and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start, otherwise the event will go ahead with one less athlete. For the field events where possible athletes unable to compete in the final will be replaced with the next best placed athlete.

Given that the Marathon and Race Walks are single races, athletes that are unable to compete will be marked as DNS and the competition will proceed with one athlete less. The minimum level of results of the athlete with a positive COVID-19 test will be recognised.

Badminton

In Badminton, athletes unable to start the competition due to COVID-19 reasons will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case the athlete has started the competition and is no longer able compete due to COVID-19 will be marked as Withdrawn (WDN). The opponent will receive a bye and the minimum result of the athlete is protected.

Baseball/Softball

In Baseball, prior to the start of competition, in case a team is unable to participate due to COVID-19, the competition format will be adapted to a single group round-robin format with the remaining number of teams. The top two teams would progress to the final whereas the third and fourth placed teams would play for bronze.

If a team can no longer compete in the final, the best placed team from the previous phase will be brought into the final to compete for the medal on the field of play. In case a team is removed from the bronze medal match and cannot be replaced, the opposing team will win the bronze medal.

In Softball, prior to the start of competition, in case a team is unable to participate due to COVID-19, the event will go ahead as scheduled with one team less. The top two teams progress to the final whereas the teams ranked third and fourth in the round robin would play for bronze.

In case a team that qualified for the final is no longer able to take part, the next highest ranked team in the standings after the round robin will be brought into the final to compete for the medal on the field of play. In this case, both the runner-up of the final and the disqualified team would be awarded silver medal.

Basketball

In 3×3, in case of a team’s failure to compete the resulting forfeit shall not count for disqualification purposes and will be noted as DNS.

If a team from one of the quarterfinal games is unable to participate the opposing team will play in the semi-final game.

If a team from one of the semi-final games is unable to participate, the opposing team will play in the final. The bronze medal game will be cancelled, and the loser of the other semi-final game shall be awarded a bronze medal. In case a team is no longer able to take part in the final, this team will be awarded a silver medal and the opposing team will be awarded the gold medal.

In Basketball, in case a team is no longer able to compete after the completion of the group stages, the next highest ranked team from all the groups combined will progress and fill the vacant place. In case one of the teams qualified for the semi-finals is eliminated, the loser from the respective quarterfinal game will take its place. The team no longer able compete will be classified fourth in the final standings, sharing the same position with the loser of the bronze medal match.

In case one of the teams participating in the bronze medal game is unable to participate due to COVID-19, this team will not be replaced, and the bronze will be awarded to the remaining team. In case one of the teams participating in the final is unable to participate due to COVID-19, this team will be awarded the silver medal and the second finalist will be awarded the gold medal.

Boxing

In Boxing, the athlete that cannot compete will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS in case they cannot start the event and will be treated as Walk-Over once the competition has started.

If an athlete is no longer able to compete the opponent will receive a bye and progress to the next round. If an athlete cannot compete in the final due to COVID-19 the bout will not go ahead and the athlete who can no longer compete will receive the silver medal and the opponent will be awarded the gold medal to protect the safety of the athletes.

Canoe

In Canoe Slalom, an athlete who is unable to start any phase of their event will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case an athlete who has qualified for the semi-final or final will not be able to compete due to COVID-19, the highest ranked athlete from the previous round will be brought forward to fill the vacant place.

In Canoe Sprint, an athlete who is unable to start any phase of their event will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case an athlete who has qualified for the quarterfinals, semi-final or final will not be able to compete due to COVID-19, the highest ranked athlete by time from the previous round will be brought forward to fill the vacant place.

Cycling

In BMX Freestyle, an athlete who is unable to start the event due to COVID-19 reasons will not be disqualified and be marked as DNS. All athletes progress from Seeding to the Final and in case they are unable to start the event due to COVID-19 reasons, the event would go ahead with one athlete less.

In BMX Racing, an athlete who is unable to compete due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. Athletes that have qualified for the semi-finals but are no longer able to compete due to COVID-19 reasons will be replaced with the highest ranked athlete from the quarterfinals. Given that the semi-finals and finals are on the same day, once cleared by daily COVID-19 testing, athletes will be able to compete in both the semi-final and final.

In Mountain Bike, an athlete who is unable to start the event due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified will be marked as DNS. The events take place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one athlete less.

In Road, an athlete who is unable to start the event due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. The events take place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one athlete less.

In Track, an athlete/team who is unable to start the event due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. For events that take place over one day the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start. In this case, if an athlete cannot start due to COVID-19 reasons, the event would go ahead with one athlete less. For events that take place over multiple days, athletes/teams that withdraw due to COVID-19 reasons will be replaced with the highest ranked athlete from the previous round.

Equestrian

In Dressage, in the individual event, in case an athlete/horse combination cannot compete due to COVID-19 the combination will not be disqualified and be marked as DNS.  In case a team cannot compete in the Team Final the next highest team will take the place in the final. In case an athlete/horse combination cannot compete in the Individual final the highest ranked athlete from the qualification phase will fill the vacant position.

In Eventing, in case an athlete/horse combination cannot compete due to COVID-19 they will not be disqualified and will be marked as a DNS.

In Jumping, in case an athlete/horse combination cannot compete due to COVID-19, they will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case a team cannot compete in the Team Final, the vacant position will not be filled. In case an athlete cannot participate in the individual Final, the next highest ranked combination will take the place in the individual final.

Fencing

In Fencing, all events are completed in one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 tests will determine if an athlete/team can start.

In individual events, if an athlete is not able to participate due to COVID-19, this athlete will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS, the opponent will be awarded the win and will progress to the next phase. In team events, if a team is not able to participate due to COVID-19, the team will be considered as DNS, the opposing team will be awarded the win and will progress to the next phase.

Should a complete team not be able to continue the competition at the semi-finals stage, their opponents will advance to the final and the loser of the other semi-final match will be awarded the bronze medal.

Football

In Football, in case a team is not able to compete due to COVID-19 the team will not be automatically disqualified. If a match cannot be played or is abandoned as a result of force majeure, FIFA shall decide on the matter at its sole discretion and take whatever action is deemed necessary.

Golf

In Golf, the athletes will be marked as DNS in case they cannot start the competition due to COVID-19. Once the competition has started and there is a confirmed positive COVID-19 case the athlete will not be disqualified and will be marked as WD (Withdrawal). The competition will go ahead with one athlete less and the result of the withdrawn athlete will remain and be considered as final.

Gymnastics

In Artistic Gymnastics, athletes unable to start the competition will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. The qualification events take place over one day. In case an athlete is no longer able to compete in the team final, if an NOC has an additional athlete, they can enter this athlete to complete the team. In case it is not feasible to replace an athlete and it prevents the entire team from participating in the Final, the next-highest ranked eligible team based on the Team ranking results of the Qualifications will fill the open position.

In case an athlete cannot compete in the individual event (all-around or individual apparatus) the first designated reserve athlete (and all subsequent if needed) may take the same place as the athlete withdrawn. The number of designated reserve athletes may be extended as needed to fill in all vacant positions.

In Rhythmic Gymnastics, athletes unable to start the competition will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. Following the qualification, if an athlete can no longer compete due to COVID-19, an NOC with a Group may replace a Group athlete(s) with one of their Individual athletes. In case there are not enough athletes to complete the Group, the next-highest ranked eligible Group, based on the Group ranking results of the Qualifications will fill the vacant position. In case there are not enough substitutes available to fill in all positions, the event would still go ahead.

In Trampoline, athletes unable to start the competition will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. The events take place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one less.

Handball

In Handball, teams unable to compete are marked will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.  In case the team has reached the knock-out phase and is no longer able to compete, the best placed team from the previous phase will be brought forward to compete. In case the team qualified for the quarterfinals and is no longer able to compete the best placed team from the respective group will take their place. In case a team can no longer compete in the semi-final, the team that lost in the quarterfinal will take their place. In case a team that qualified for the final is no longer able to take part, the team that was eliminated by the COVID-19 impacted team will be brought into the final to compete for the medal on the field of play. The bronze medal match will in that case not be played.

Hockey

In Hockey, teams unable to compete due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.

In case a team in the knockout stages is no longer able to compete due to COVID-19 their minimum ranking achieved will be protected and, if time allows, their opponent will advance to the next round. Therefore, if a team is unable to participate in the final, the team that was eliminated by the COVID-19 impacted team will be brought into the final to compete for the medal on the field of play. The other losing semi-finalist will be awarded the bronze medal.

Judo

In Judo the events take place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one athlete less and the opponent will receive a bye. The athlete will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.

Karate

In Karate, the events take place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start. The athlete will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.  If an athlete is no longer able to compete due to COVID-19 during the Elimination Round (except the last bout) of either Kata and Kumite, the scores of completed or current bouts are nullified, and the athlete’s points forfeited. If an athlete is no longer able to compete in the last bout of the Elimination Round and/or the bouts for Medals, the athlete keeps their ranking.

Modern Pentathlon

In Modern Pentathlon, if an athlete is not able to compete due to COVID-19 before the technical meeting, then the athlete is removed from the list and the event will go ahead with one athlete less. The athlete will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS or ELI depending on the discipline.

Rowing

In Rowing, crew or crews unable to start the next round of the regatta due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case a crew will not be able to compete due to COVID-19 in a quarterfinal, semi-final or final, the next highest ranked boat or boats from previous round/s may be brought forward to fill the vacant place. This will be managed on a case by case basis and may include variations from the World Rowing progression system by the World Rowing Executive Committee.

Rugby Sevens

In Rugby Sevens, in case a team is not able to compete due to COVID-19 it will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. If a team that had qualified for the knock-out round can no longer compete due to COVID-19, the team ranked 9th based on the post-pool round standings will be brought forward to compete. In case a team cannot compete in the semi-final they shall be replaced by the team that they beat in the relevant quarterfinal.

In case a team can no longer compete in the final, the team that was eliminated by the COVID-19 impacted team will be brought into the final to compete for the medal on the field of play. The winner of the final will be awarded the gold medal and both the runner up and the withdrawn teams will be awarded silver medals.

Sailing

In Sailing, athletes unable to start due to COVID-19 reasons will be marked as Did Not Come (DNC). The results obtained until this point will remain as per the World Sailing regulations.

Shooting

In Shooting, if an athlete/team is not able to compete due to COVID-19, they will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. There will be no change to the competition format or groupings.

The events take place over one day with the exception of the shotgun events, however all athletes compete on both days and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one athlete less.

For the mixed team event, in case an athlete can no longer take part in the event, but the NOC has another athlete on site, the NOC can replace an athlete team member.

Skateboarding

In Skateboarding, athletes unable to start the competition due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case an athlete who has qualified for the final will not be able to compete due to COVID-19, the highest ranked athlete from the previous round will be brought forward to fill the vacant place.

Sport Climbing

In Sport Climbing, athletes unable to start the competition due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case an athlete(s) who has qualified for the final will not be able to compete due to COVID-19, the final will start with less athlete(s).

Surfing

In Surfing, athletes unable to start the competition due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case an athlete will not be able to compete due to COVID-19, the highest ranked athlete from the previous round will be brought forward to fill the vacant place.

Taekwondo

In Taekwondo, athletes unable to start the competition due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS, the opponent will receive a bye and progress to the next round. Given that the events take place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start.

Table Tennis

In Table Tennis, athletes/pairing/teams unable to compete due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS in case it happens before the competition. Once the competition has started and an athlete/pairing/team can no longer compete, the athlete/pairing/team is marked as W/O (walkover) and, as far as possible, the athlete/pairing/team they eliminate in the previous round, will fill the vacant place. The minimum level of results achieved by the athlete/pairing/team affected by COVID-19 will be protected.

Tennis

In Tennis, athletes unable to start the competition due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. In case the athlete has started the competition and can no longer compete due to COVID-19 will be marked as W/O (walkover). The opponent will receive a bye and the minimum result of the athlete is protected.

Triathlon

In Triathlon, an athlete who is unable to start the event due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. The events take place as a single race and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one athlete/team less.

Volleyball

In Beach Volleyball, if a team is unable to compete due to COVID-19 will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.

In case a team has qualified for the round of 16 and is no longer able to compete due to COVID-19, the next best placed team from the preliminary phase will take their place. In case the team has qualified for the quarterfinal, the team that was eliminated in the respective round of 16 will take their place. In case a team qualified for the semi-final, the respective losing quarterfinalist will take the place to ensure full fields. In case the team is not able to compete in the final, the semi-finalist who lost against the COVID-19 team will progress to the final. In this case, the match for third place will not go ahead.

In Volleyball, if a team is unable to compete due to COVID-19 the team will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS.

In case the team qualified for the quarterfinals, the team will be replaced by the highest ranked team from the respective pool of the preliminary round. In case the team qualified for the semi-final, the respective losing quarterfinalist will take their place. In case one of the two teams playing in the final can no longer compete due to COVID-19 the team is replaced by the respective losing semi-finalist.

Weightlifting

In Weightlifting the events take place over one day and therefore the results of the daily COVID-19 test will determine if an athlete can start otherwise the event will go ahead with one athlete less. Athlete that did not start the competition will not be disqualified and will be indicated as DNS.

Wrestling

In Wrestling, if an athlete is not able to compete due to COVID-19 the athlete will not be disqualified and will be marked as DNS. The opponent receives a bye into the next round.

In case the athlete has reached the final and is no longer able to compete due to COVID-19 the athlete eliminated in the respective semi-final will fill the vacant place and compete in the final.