The Playbooks have been developed jointly by the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, and the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee. They are based on the extensive work of the All Partners Task Force, which also includes the World Health Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, independent experts, and organisations from across the world. And, we will continue to work together, updating the Playbooks in April 2021, when more information is available.

FAQs for v2 of the Playbooks launched on 28 April 2021

The journey to the Games outlined in the Playbook starts 14 days before travelling to Japan. During this time, all Olympic Games participants are required to take their temperatures daily and monitor their health for any COVID-19 symptoms. Participants must also download and install the COCOA and Health Reporting apps – currently under development and to be released in June – and take two PCR tests in the 96 hours before departure. On arrival in Japan, participants will take another test; entry to the Village is possible directly depending on the test results.

Since the release of version two of the Playbooks, from 1 July 2021, all Olympic Games athletes and officials will be permitted to perform Games-related activities during their mandatory three-day quarantine only if they test negative for COVID-19 every day, and operate under a higher level of supervision by the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee.

All countermeasures outlined in the Playbooks will apply to pre-Games training camps, for example daily testing and no use of public transport.

COVID-19 testing at the Games for athletes, in principle, will be daily. Sport-specific adaptions may be made depending on competition schedule and other considerations, and these will be outlined in the sport-specific guidelines released at the end of May. Tests will be conducted at the Olympic Village, and testing at remote competition venues is also being explored.

Athletes will be able to attend the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, and there will be a number of specific countermeasures in place to ensure their safety. There will be limits on the number of officials who will attend the Opening and Closing Ceremonies to reduce the overall number of people present.

Procedures will be consistent across all the venues.

Work has been done to address the issues and make the necessary adjustments. The app will be adapted to the Games in terms of languages.

The Playbooks are produced in English, French and Spanish. It is also possible for NOCs to translate them into their own language. The exact languages of the COCOA application will be confirmed in the next version of the Playbooks.

COCOA is mainly used for contact tracing purposes. There is also a health reporting app and a tool for COVID-19 Liaison Officers (CLOs) and medical teams in Tokyo 2020 called “ICON” to manage the information related to the Activity Plan and health reporting. The CLOs will be responsible for ensuring the relevant information is submitted and are on hand to explain to athletes more details on using the COCOA app and health reporting applications.

Confirmed positive cases will have gone through three tests. First, the saliva-based antigen test will be conducted – if this returns positive, then a PCR test will be done using the same saliva sample. If this is also positive, then the person will be required to take a nasopharyngeal PCR test. If this test is positive too, then the person will be confirmed as a positive case.

Unfortunately, no international spectators will be permitted to enter Japan. There will be a decision by the end of June regarding venue capacity and what the possible restrictions will be for domestic spectators. Once there is a framework agreed by the authorities, we will be able to provide further information. Athletes will not have access to ticketed spectator areas for sports other than their own sports discipline (this is also dependent on accreditation privilege).

If an athlete is eliminated before the end of their competition, they must leave within 48 hours. Exceptions can be made depending on individual circumstances, with NOCs able to apply for a possible approval on such an exception. Limiting the number of people in the Village is one of the ways which makes it possible to accommodate all athletes in the Village, in addition to protecting the integrity of the Village.

To address these types of issues in the most effective way, the IOC is present in the NOC Services Centre in the Village to work through these on a case-by-case basis with the NOCs to make sure athletes are taken care of.

Each delegation member who is fully accredited and staying outside the Village will have access to venues and will adhere to the same Playbook rules as those staying inside the Village. This includes testing and only travelling between the accommodation and the venues.

No. NOCs are providing double occupancy based on team size. With the period of stay rules we have implemented, NOCs may be able to grant single rooms to certain individuals.

There are a number of measures in place to reduce the capacities of all facilities. We are looking at restrictions at the gym in peak hours to provide priority to competing athletes.

In addition, we can provide many things virtually and repurpose these spaces for more exercise space. There will also be plexiglass separating machines in the gym and strict controls to ensure access for athletes only.

Travel is possible only between pre-approved destinations in the List of Destinations and Movement as described in an athlete’s Activity Plan, such as accommodation, competition or training venues, or pre-Games training camps. No trips to restaurants and bars, sightseeing or use of public transport will be permitted.

Each NOC will have a CLO, and these will be the athletes’ main source of contact for all COVID-19-related matters during the Games. The CLO will support with testing arrangements, creation of the Activity Plan, and offer assistance with using the COCOA application, for example. They would contact any athlete who returns a positive test and guide them through the next steps. The CLOs are trained in groups, and this training has already started.

If the partner is properly accredited, training with them is possible and subject to the same rules of testing and transport as for those staying inside the Village. Training in high-performance training centres is also possible.

As a key principle, athletes will be able to enter the Olympic Village five days before the start of their competition and must leave the Village 48 hours after the end of their competition. Please follow the instructions of your NOC regarding your arrival at and departure from the Olympic Village, which should both be in line with the IOC’s “Period of stay” guidelines. 

The objective of these guidelines is to ensure that all NOCs minimise the number of residents staying in the Village, thereby minimising the risks of COVID-19 exposure, whilst balancing considerations relating to athlete performance, acclimatisation for the Games and attendance at the Opening and Closing Ceremonies.

The guidelines direct NOCs to adapt their arrival and departure policies to ensure that athletes can arrive at the Olympic Village five days prior to the start of their competition and depart a maximum of two days after completion of their competition. Some period-of-stay exceptions will be considered subject to certain sport-specific criteria.

The dining hall will have plexiglass dividers for each seat to protect the athletes’ health. Work is currently ongoing regarding details of the app and the different situational solutions, such as “checking in”. Further information will be provided in the next version of the Playbook.

In addition to the plexiglass dividers to separate seating, menus will be available in advance as well as live congestion levels so that athletes and officials can plan their trips. Currently there are no takeaway options available in the Olympic Village dining hall. Work is ongoing with Tokyo 2002 to explore the various options and maximise the “grab and go” snack stations.

Samsung will provide phones to athletes with 3GB of data, and Wi-Fi is widely available at Olympic sites.

They need to immediately begin isolating and inform their CLO. They will then either be required to continue isolating or be hospitalised, depending on their condition. The location and length of their isolation period will be determined by the Japanese health authorities, depending on the severity and symptoms of their infection. They will not be allowed to compete/continue their role.

There are existing late-athlete-replacement protocols in place in case of injuries or other issues, but not every sport has these to allow for multiple changes. Specifically, for COVID-19, these rules will be reviewed and worked on in the coming weeks. Our aim is that all Games-accredited persons participating in the Games will have gone through the process outlined in the Playbooks. Further information on the process will be provided in the sport-specific regulations released at the end of May 2021.

Each sport has a contingency plan in place to deal with challenges which may arise, for example adverse weather.

For COVID-19, work is ongoing with the International Federations (IFs) to document the sports technical rules, and an update will be shared on the process of how confirmed positive cases are dealt with across the sports. As many competitions have already returned, rules currently used by the IFs will be adapted to reflect Games-time testing procedures. This information should be available by the end of May 2021.

Everyone at the Games will be treated the same regardless of their vaccine status or whether they have already had the virus. When determining close contacts related to a confirmed positive case, having a vaccination will be one of the factors considered.

Everyone with a confirmed positive case of COVID-19 will have to isolate regardless of their vaccination status. Trials of the vaccines have shown effectiveness in reducing the viral load, but they have not shown if the individuals are no longer infectious. More information will be available on this by Games time.

A precise number is not currently known. However, in January, all NOCs and NPCs were encouraged to work with their local governments to assist with getting their athletes vaccinated. Many NOCs and NPCs have announced that their athletes have been vaccinated, although the situation differs from country to country. The IOC has announced a partnership with Pfizer to help provide an opportunity to athletes to receive a vaccine.

Accreditation card privileges will end 48 hours after elimination or the end of the competition, meaning athletes will no longer have access to the Village or competition venues.

The RAEG is made up of public health specialists both from Japan and internationally, expert virologist(s) and representatives from the IOC and Tokyo 2020. Their role is to advise on case management and close contacts based on scientific evidence and pre-agreed protocols to determine how they should be managed.

The definition of close contacts will apply, and every avenue will be explored to ensure that, while competition continues, health and safety remain a key priority.

Athletes travelling to remote competition venues will take bullet trains, and there will be dedicated spacing allocated in the transport for the delegations. The CLOs will liaise with Tokyo 2020 in advance to ensure space in transport can be accommodated.

Close contacts are defined as persons who have been in close proximity (less than one metre) to a confirmed positive case for at least 15 consecutive minutes without wearing a face mask. Then the person must take PCR tests daily (exact duration to be defined) and assessments will take place by the REAG group before approval by the relevant IF. All relevant information and circumstances will be taken into account when determining close contacts, and the process is designed to enable athletes who are identified as close contacts to compete where possible.

Isolation facilities will depend on the level of infection and whether a person is seriously ill (e.g. hospital or another location to be decided by the local government). The facility will be as athlete-friendly as possible, with allowances for visits from entourage and members of the delegation.

Arrangements have been made to ensure athletes can travel safely to and from the MPC and IBC. Additionally, press and media will have restricted access to the Olympic Village in a “mixed zone” type format.

Medical exemptions for face masks are being considered, but not something to be included on accreditations. The exact measures in place will be communicated nearer Games time.

Vaccines are safe and have only minor side effects at the time of vaccination, which could interfere with training briefly or not at all. WADA has confirmed that there is no evidence vaccines will affect doping testing or lead to an adverse analytical finding. WADA has committed to giving a retroactive TUE in case such evidence is found.

The typical Athlete365 engagement will be moved from the in-person Athlete365 Space to be delivered digitally. The IOC Athletes’ Commission election will be the only in-person activation in the Olympic Village.

Vaccinations will not be mandatory to enter Japan or to compete in the Olympic Games. Vaccinations are encouraged but not obligatory, and there is no preferred or recommended vaccine.

Playbooks are given to all participants in advance, and it is hoped everyone will adhere to and support the rules. If someone does not follow the rules, there will be a disciplinary process to be followed. The exact process and outcomes will be updated in the next version of the Playbook.

FAQs for v1 of the Playbooks launched on 09 February 2021

The Playbooks are the basis of our game plan to ensure all Olympic and Paralympic Games participants and the people of Japan stay safe and healthy this summer. The purpose of the Playbooks is to ensure that athletes and other participants know the rules that will keep everyone safe, achieving the goal of prioritising the health and safety of athletes at the Games.

They have been developed jointly by Tokyo 2020, the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). They are based on the extensive work of the All Partners Task Force, which also includes the World Health Organization, the Government of Japan, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, independent experts and organisations from across the world, as well as the interim report published by the Three-Party Council in December 2020.

Key principles of the athlete experience have been developed in consultation with the IOC Athletes’ Commission.

In addition, they also draw upon the lessons learned from the successful measures being implemented in other sectors, including the successful resumption of thousands of international sports events across the world. The role of the Playbooks and their content will be similar to the event-specific plans that many of you will have used for other events in which you have participated over the past nine months, and they have been produced to ensure the Games can take place safely in line with COVID-19 countermeasures.

The Playbook sets out the countermeasures and establishes parameters that will help you plan your participation in the Olympic Games – how to enter the country, the testing regime involved, special rules for the first 14 days, hygiene measures, etc.

The first edition will reiterate many of the key health countermeasures currently implemented around the globe relating to personal hygiene, testing, and tracing, and some travel and vaccination information. Many of you will have experienced most of these countermeasures at the events in which you have already taken part over recent months.

A typical athlete journey is also mapped out, which will help you picture your stay from 14 days before your arrival right up to when you leave Japan. As such, it will provide direction for you and your teams to help plan for the months ahead.

You can access the Playbook here and through your NOC/NPC. Please contact your NOC/NPC, which will provide you with all the relevant information on how its delegation will be organised for Games time.

All information on the rules and principles for all participants to follow will be outlined in the Playbook.

Building on the experience across many sports that have safely returned to competition, specific COVID-19 countermeasure rules may apply to your sport and at certain locations in your competition and training venues, e.g. the field of play, warm-up regulations, and in athlete preparation areas (such as changing rooms, medical areas, and call rooms).

These are being developed by Tokyo 2020, the IOC/IPC, and your respective International Federation (IF). At each step, as we progress, more information and details will be shared with you, such as how athletes will travel from the Olympic Village to their competition venue, for example.

Vaccines are one of many tools available in our toolbox, to be used at the appropriate time and in the appropriate way. The IOC continues to strongly support the priority of vaccinating vulnerable groups, nurses, medical doctors, and everyone who is keeping our societies safe.

When vaccinations are made available to the broader public, the IOC calls for Olympic and Paralympic teams to be vaccinated – given their role as ambassadors of their NOCs and NPCs to promote safe sport as a contributor to the health and wellbeing of individuals and communities.

The IOC and IPC will therefore work with your NOCs/NPCs to encourage and assist athletes and team officials to get vaccinated in their home countries, in line with national immunisation guidelines, before they go to Japan. This is to contribute to the safe environment of the Games, but also out of respect for the Japanese people, who should be confident that everything is being done to protect not only the participants but also the Japanese people themselves.

Please note that you will not be required to have received a vaccine in order to participate in the Games – and all of the rules outlined in the Playbook will apply, whether or not you have received the vaccine.

This Playbook sets out the responsibilities that apply to all athletes and team officials. Additional sport-specific information will be made available as noted above and should be considered alongside any wider information received from your NOC/NPC.

Yes. We will continue to produce more detailed plans during the lead-up to Tokyo 2020, as the circumstances that we will face become clearer.

A third update will be published by June as we get closer to the Olympic Games. We will make sure you have all the information you need, as quickly as possible.

Athlete365 will continue to have the latest information available for you.

Make sure that you regularly check Athlete365 and liaise with your NOC/NPC to ensure that you are aware of the latest updates to the Playbook. This Playbook is the single source of truth for information related to the Games, and ad-hoc adjustments might be made outside the official releases if necessary.

Yes. The rules apply in the same way to every athlete and official, regardless of your sport or where you live – just as they apply to all other Olympic Games participants. This is important as you have a responsibility to not only yourself, but also your fellow athletes.

Please take time to understand the plans, the steps you must take and the rules you must follow – starting 14 days before you travel, throughout the length of your stay in Japan and for your return home. It is expected that you take personal responsibility for your part in the plan and follow these rules and principles. As athletes and team officials, you will set the standard.

Not following the rules contained in this Playbook may expose you to consequences that could have an impact on your participation in the Olympic and Paralympic Games, your access to Games venues and, in some cases, your participation in competitions. Repeated or serious failures to comply with these rules may result in the withdrawal of your accreditation and right to participate in the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Please contact your NOC/NPC if you have any questions on any specific aspect of the Playbook.

Please feel free to contact us at athlete365@olympic.org if you have any questions or feedback.

Download the Athletes and Officials Playbook

In this Athletes and Officials Playbook, you will learn more about your time in the Olympic and Paralympic Village. There will be strict control measures to ensure your safety. This will include limiting the amount of time you and support staff stay in the Village, restrictions on socialising outside the Village, your movement between official Games venues, and a COVID-19 screening system that will see you and support staff screened during the Games.